Sudan University of Science and Technology
Pastoralism in the Sudan involves about 9.1 per cent of the population and the pastoralist pattern of life is almost practiced in every state throughout Sudan and makes a markable contribution to securing livelihoods, national economy as well as foreign trade through livestock exports. The conducive role of Pastoralism in the sustainable management of dry land environments cannot be overseen.
Distribution Percentage of Nomads in Sudan according to living patterns
Two distinguished pastoral nomads are well recognized in Sudan these are camel herders and cattle herders.
Camels are kept as a source of milk and meat as well as a pack and riding animal. More than four million camels are raised in the northern arid and semi-arid zones north to 14° N latitude however, after the droughts of the last three decades of the 20th Century, the camels were found south up to the latitude 10° N. They are concentrated mainly in the western region namely Kordofan and Darfur which encompasses about 60% of the Sudan camel population, whereas 25.7% of camel stock is found in the Eastern region of Sudan. Many tribes practice nomadism in eastern Sudan, Kassala and Red Sea States. Beside camels they also raise sheep. in the Butana plain (between the Blue Nile and the Atbara River) the Shukriya,Rashayda and Lahawin with their camels and sheep move toward the Blue Nile, the Atbara River and to the irrigated schemes (Gezira, Rahad and New Halfa) during the dry season. During the rainly season they spread widely all over the Butana plain.
Pastoral Nomadism in western Sudan is practiced by many tribes. They experience three patterns of migratory rounds; during rainy season, winter and summer. in the last decades the camel-herders move far deeper to south into the Nuba Mountains and beyond in Kordofan and as far as Bahar El Arab in Darfur. Beside camels pastoral nomads in western Sudan also keep sheep. During the rainy season the Hamar and Kababish sheep are found in central Kordofan (the Goz),while in the dry season they graze as far as south Kordofan, in north Darfur sheep moved to the Gizu during winter and in summer to their homeland in north Darfur.
Cattle in Sudan are kept by Baggara Nomads. It is worth mentioning that some tribes are classified as Baggara and Aballa at the same time depending on the area where they are moving and the type of animals they keep.like the Rufa’a al-Hoi andRizeigat tribe. To the west of White Nile Baggara are dispersed throughout the area from the southwestern parts of Darfur and south Kordofan to the banks of the White Nile in the east. They move between Baher El Arab in the south, where they spend the dry season, and their homelands on the more sandy soils (goz) in the rainy season.
The Baggara live within the savannah where the annual rainfall increases from 400 mm in the north to over 800 mm in the south. They practice cultivation of millet and sorghum as staple crops beside the cash crops mainly cotton, ground nuts and sesame. They also keep few goats and sheep.
جميع الحقوق محفوظة © جامعة السودان للعلوم و التكنولوجيا